According to Greek mythology, Kefalonia was named after the King Kefalos, although there have been occasionally other theories regarding the origin of the name.
When the Kings of the Mycenaean Kefalonia claimed the kingdom of Mycenae, Kefalos was one of the two heroes who accompanied Amphitryon on the Mycenaen expedition against Kefalonia.
Kefalonia was first inhabited in the 10th century BC. After the 5th century BC Kefalonia was divided into four autonomous states, known as the Kefalonian Tetrapolis (four cities). Those cities were Krani, Palli, Sami and Pronnon, all named after the four sons of King Kefalos. These four cities were small independent republics and cut their own currencies.
Palli was spread all over the entire western peninsula of the island (today Palliki) and was built on the hill of Dour or Paliokastro. Krani on the other was built on the cove of the lagoon in Koutavos (even today traces of Cyclopean walls are visible) and included the southern part of the island west of Enos. Pronnon was situated in the southeast of Kefalonia and Sami was built on two hills just above the present town and included the entire former province. Sami participated in the Trojan War as part of the Kingdom of Odysseus, sent troops in the Persian Wars and later entered the Athenian Alliance.
By visiting the Archaeological Museum of Argostoli one can see all these great findings, especially from the ones from the Mycenaean tombs of Mazarakaton, of Kokolata and Lakythra.
One of the last findings is the small ancient theater of Fiskardo. It was found accidentally during excavations for constructing a residence.